Design Of Coagulation And Flocculation Tank Pdf


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22.05.2021 at 02:25
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design of coagulation and flocculation tank pdf

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Coagulation is one of the preliminary steps in treating wastewater to make it safe for drinking. When chemicals are used, key design practices on the storage tank can help ensure safety, longevity, and operational efficiency.

Suspended matter in raw water supplies is removed by various methods to provide a water suitable for domestic purposes and most industrial requirements. The suspended matter can consist of large solids, settable by gravity alone without any external aids, and nonsettleable material, often colloidal in nature. Removal is generally accomplished by coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation.

Many water treatment plants use a combination of coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection to provide clean, safe drinking water to the public. Worldwide, a combination of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration is the most widely applied water treatment technology, and has been used since the early 20th century. For more information about the disinfection portion of the treatment process, see the Chlorination fact sheet. The coagulation process involves adding iron or aluminum salts, such as aluminum sulphate, ferric sulphate, ferric chloride or polymers, to the water. These chemicals are called coagulants, and have a positive charge.

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Major U. Kreissl and J. Smith : of the U. Lussier of Technology Transfer, Washington, D. NOTICE The mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is for illustration purposes and does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the U. Environmental Protection Agency.

However, water currents also tend to distribute the floc unevenly throughout the tank; as a result, it does not settle out at an even rate. The gentle mixing is usually done mechanically although hydraulic mixing is sometimes required. Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. When coagulants are added, the stabilised colloidal system of water is disturbed and the coagulant forms primary flocculation particles. Material for this article was largely taken from reference 1. Figure 1 depicts the coagulation process in the resident tank by the diagonal lines. There are four main mechanisms for coagulation: double layer compression, adsorption and charge neutralization, sweep flocculation, and inter-particle bridging.

This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. Material for this article was largely taken from reference 1. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. As early as BC the Egyptians used almonds smeared around vessels to clarify river water. The use of alum as a coagulant by the Romans was mentioned in around 77 AD.

design of coagulation and flocculation tank pdf

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The coagulation and flocculation process requires a great amount of attention to detail along the way. The theoretical mean hydraulic detention time of the tank will be 1 minute. However, water currents also tend to distribute the floc unevenly throughout the tank; as a result, it does not settle out at an even rate. Consider the following in your design: 1. Material for this article was largely taken from reference 1.

Enhancing the coagulation process is currently a popular research topic. In this review article, the latest developments in enhanced coagulation are summarized. In addition, the mechanisms of enhanced coagulation and the effect of process parameters on processing efficiency are discussed from the perspective of ballast-enhanced coagulation, preoxidation, ultrasound, and composite coagulants. Finally, improvements and new directions for enhanced coagulation are proposed. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes.


LIST OF TABLES. Table 1: Summary of Routine Coagulation-Flocculation-​Clarification Process Actions. 40 Other shapes and designs of tank utilizing the.


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2 Comments

Josh P.
28.05.2021 at 04:19 - Reply

Once floc has reached it optimum size and strength, water is ready for sedimentation. Design contact times for flocculation range from 15 or 20 minutes to an hour.

Dulniachiereds
30.05.2021 at 05:36 - Reply

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