Spiderwebs And Silk Tracing Evolution From Molecules To Genes To Phenotypes PdfBy Karena S. In and pdf 21.05.2021 at 10:59 9 min read
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- Download Spiderwebs And Silk: Tracing Evolution From Molecules To Genes To Phenotypes
- Spiderwebs and Silk Tracing Evolution From Molecules to Genes to Phenotypes
- Spiderwebs and Silk
- Mesoscale structures in amorphous silks from a spider’s orb-web
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Download Spiderwebs And Silk: Tracing Evolution From Molecules To Genes To Phenotypes
More info here. Ebook can be read and downloaded up to 6 devices. You can't read this ebook with Amazon Kindle. Catherine L. She seeks to identify a relationship between organismal, ecology, gene, and protein evolution that can be linked to rates of evolutionary change. Annotation c Book News, Inc.
Craig's book draws together studies from biochemistry through molecular genetics, cellular physiology, ecology, and behavior to present an integrated understanding of an interesting biological system at the molecular and organizational levels. Show more Show less. Craigs 'Spider Webs and Silks' brings a fascinating and important subject to a potentially broad audience.
And it might even turn some arachnophobes into arachnophiles. The book is a well-written, informative spider silk monograph Lehrer 84 24 Insect spatial resolution is a function of the anatomy and the optics of the eye 84 2 Contrast resolution is the prerequisite of object detection 86 1 Insects possess a high temporal resolution capacity 87 3 Motion parallax cues provide the insect with depth information 90 1 Insect vision and flight maneuverability function as potential selective forces on silk and web properties 91 1 Distorted and oscillating webs may enhance insect interception 92 4 The translucent properties of frame MA and spiral Flag silk minimize contrast between webs and their background 96 2 Insects' response to webs is independent of ambient light conditions 98 5 Web visibility is determined by specific web-background combinations in specific ambient light conditions 3 Visible and invisible webs might have evolved in parallel 2 5 Insect Color Vision Is a Potential Selective Factor on the Evolution of Silk Chromatic Properties and Web Design with M.
Lehrer 15 Most insects have UV-, blue-, and green-sensitive photoreceptors 5 Detection of colored objects is based on their contrast against the background 1 The perceptions of chromatic contrast and achromatic contrast are independent processes 1 Webs of ancestral and derived spiders differ in their spectral reflectance 7 Do the differences in UV-reflection of silks result from selective effects of insect color vision?
Keywords: Evolutionary genetics Spiders - Evolution Spider webs. Iet uz iepirkumu grozu. Silks and fibrous proteins are made up of amino acids that exhibit diverse secondary and tertiary configurations. Current hypotheses suggest that fibrous proteins produced by the Chelicerata and Hexapoda evolved independently. Comparative phylogenetic analyses pinpoint the taxa most likely to yield insight into the origins and biology of silk-producing systems. The ability to secrete fibrous proteins is a primitive character of the hexapods and first evolved in the Diplura.
The structural organization of spider silk is correlated with the evolution of a muscular and innervated spinneret. Silk production in insects and spiders is hypothesized to have evolved via two pathways: a systemic gland pathway and a surficial gland pathway. All of the sequenced fibroin silks Fhc, MA, and Flag are made up of hierarchically organized, repetitive arrays of amino acids. Fhc fibroin genes and perhaps MA genes are characterized by a similar molecular genetic architecture of two exons and one intron, but the organization and size of these units differ.
Sequences coding for crystalline and noncrystalline protein domains are integrated in the repetitive regions of Fhc and MA exons, but not in the protein glues Ser1 and BR Codon bias, structural constraint, point mutations, and shortened coding arrays are alternative means of stabilizing precursor mRNA transcripts. Differential regulation of gene expression and selective splicing may allow rapid adaptation of silk functional properties to different environments.
Ancestral araneomorph spiders spin "dry" capture silks into irregular webs; derived araneomorph spiders here, the Orbiculariae spin dry and "wet" capture silks into symmetrical webs. The Orbiculariae spin nets that are suspended under tension and that approximate minimum volume architectures. Web function is determined by the interaction between web architecture and the material properties of silks. The webs and silks spun by the ancestral Deinopoidea are stiff; their ability to both withstand prey impact and to retain prey is a function of fiber strength.
Silk fibroins produced by derived spiders contain either highly oriented crystalline regions or no crystalline regions at all.
Despite the advantages of araneoid webs and silks, the cribellate spiders have persisted through evolution. Insect vision and flight maneuverability function as potential selective forces on silk and web properties. The translucent properties of frame MA and spiral Flag silk minimize contrast between webs and their background. Web visibility is determined by specific web-background combinations in specific ambient light conditions.
Do the differences in UV-reflection of silks result from selective effects of insect color vision? Some silks and webs possess particular spectral or spatial features that might be attractive to insects. Studies on web avoidance learning show that bees are able to dissociate color cues from the information with which it is paired. Web decorations attract prey and their variable orientations may disrupt insect pattern learning. The amino acids organisms synthesize are those needed in large quantities and on a predictable basis.
The central metabolic pathways provide a common currency, ATP, through which the costs of protein synthesis can be compared. The amino acid compositions of silks spun by arthropods vary in proportions of alanine, glycine, and serine.
Direct comparison of amino acid costs suggests that dragline MA silks produced by araneomorph spiders are more costly than cocoon Fhc silks produced by herbivores. Comparison of MA silk produced by ancestral and derived species suggests a trend toward reduced silk costs among the cribellates and between the MA and Flag silks of the Araneoidea. Spider silk glands may have evolved through intra-gland competition for amino acids that the spiders synthesize.
The ability to recycle silks allows the araneoids to reduce the metabolic costs of producing silk. Ecdysone may regulate silk synthesis in some spider glands, but silk production in the MA gland seems to be neurally regulated. Natural selection, the repetitive organization of silk genes, and energy exchange are the major factors that direct the evolution of silk proteins and the spiders that produce them.
Evolutionary analyses of silk protein evolvability, the effects of predators on prey sensory systems, and cost selection are three promising avenues for future evolutionary research and specifically for evolutionary research on spiders.
Spiderwebs and Silk Tracing Evolution From Molecules to Genes to Phenotypes
More info here. Ebook can be read and downloaded up to 6 devices. You can't read this ebook with Amazon Kindle. Catherine L. She seeks to identify a relationship between organismal, ecology, gene, and protein evolution that can be linked to rates of evolutionary change. Annotation c Book News, Inc. Craig's book draws together studies from biochemistry through molecular genetics, cellular physiology, ecology, and behavior to present an integrated understanding of an interesting biological system at the molecular and organizational levels.
This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Parts of chapter 7 are abstracted from: Craig, C. Hsu, D.
Of the 7—8 silk fibers making up an orb-web only the hierarchical structural organization of semicrystalline radial fibers -composed of major ampullate silk- has been studied in detail, given its fascinating mechanical features. One of the fibers has a fibrillar composite structure resembling stiff egg case silk. The other fiber has a skin—core structure based on a nanofibrillar ribbon wound around a disordered core. A fraction of nanofibrils appears to have assembled into mesoscale fibrils. This fiber becomes readily attached to the coat of major ampullate silk fibers. We observe that a detached fiber has ripped out the glycoprotein skin-layer containing polyglycine II nanocrystallites.
This book links the molecular evolution of silk proteins to the evolution and Tracing Evolution From Molecules to Genes to Phenotypes.
Spiderwebs and Silk
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Most spiders spin multiple types of silk, including silks for reproduction, prey capture, and draglines. Spiders are a megadiverse group and the majority of spider silks remain uncharacterized.
Mesoscale structures in amorphous silks from a spider’s orb-web
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Craig Published Biology. Preface 1 Breaking down silk proteins and their evolutionary pathways 2 The comparative architecture of silks, fibrous proteins and their encoding genes in insects and spiders 3.
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Insect spatial vision is potential selective factor on the evolution of silk achromatic properties and web architecture 5. Insect color Spiderwebs and silk: tracing evolution from molecules to genes to phenotypes 8. PDF. Alert. Research Feed. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era.