Distinguish Between Inductive And Deductive Reasoning Pdf


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During the scientific process, deductive reasoning is used to reach a logical true conclusion. Another type of reasoning, inductive, is also used. Often, people confuse deductive reasoning with inductive reasoning, and vice versa.

Deductive vs. Inductive

When assessing the quality of an argument , we ask how well its premises support its conclusion. More specifically, we ask whether the argument is either deductively valid or inductively strong. An argument in which the premises do succeed in guaranteeing the conclusion is called a deductively valid argument.

If a valid argument has true premises, then the argument is said also to be sound. All arguments are either valid or invalid, and either sound or unsound; there is no middle ground, such as being somewhat valid.

The two premises of this argument would, if true, guarantee the truth of the conclusion. However, we have been given no information that would enable us to decide whether the two premises are both true, so we cannot assess whether the argument is deductively sound.

It is one or the other, but we do not know which. The argument also will be stronger the more times there were when I did walk by the dog. The argument will be weaker the fewer times I have walked by the dog. It will be weaker if relevant conditions about the past time will be different next time, such as that in the past the dog has been behind a closed gate, but next time the gate will be open.

An inductive argument can be affected by acquiring new premises evidence , but a deductive argument cannot be. For example, this is a reasonably strong inductive argument:.

The distinction between deductive and inductive argumentation was first noticed by the Aristotle B. The difference between deductive and inductive arguments does not lie in the words used within the arguments, but rather in the intentions of the arguer.

That is, we assess the argument to see whether it is deductively valid and whether it is inductively strong.

The concept of deductive validity can be given alternative definitions to help you grasp the concept. Below are five different definitions of the same concept. It is common to drop the word deductive from the term deductively valid :. This article considers conductive arguments to be a kind of inductive argument. Although inductive strength is a matter of degree, deductive validity and deductive soundness are not. In this sense, deductive reasoning is much more cut and dried than inductive reasoning.

Nevertheless, inductive strength is not a matter of personal preference; it is a matter of whether the premise ought to promote a higher degree of belief in the conclusion. Think of sound deductive arguments as squeezing the conclusion out of the premises within which it is hidden. For this reason, deductive arguments usually turn crucially upon definitions and rules of mathematics and formal logic.

John is ill. That argument is valid due to its formal or logical structure. Here is the form of any argument having the structure of modus ponens:. The capital letters should be thought of as variables that can be replaced with declarative sentences, or statements, or propositions, namely items that are true or false.

The investigation of logical forms that involve whole sentences and not their subjects and verbs and other parts is called Propositional Logic.

The question of whether all, or merely most, valid deductive arguments are valid because of their logical structure is still controversial in the field of the philosophy of logic, but that question will not be explored further in this article. Inductive arguments can take very wide-ranging forms.

Some have the form of making a claim about a population or set based only on information from a sample of that population, a subset.

Other inductive arguments draw conclusions by appeal to evidence, or authority, or causal relationships. There are other forms. The police said John committed the murder. So, John committed the murder. The witness said John committed the murder.

Two independent witnesses claimed John committed the murder. John confessed to the crime. Strictly speaking, he produced an inductive argument and not a deductive one.

Proofs that make use of mathematical induction typically take the following form:. Property P is true of the natural number 0. When such a proof is given by a mathematician, and when all the premises are true, then the conclusion follows necessarily. Therefore, such an inductive argument is deductive. It is deductively sound, too.

The difference does not have to do with the content or subject matter of the argument, nor with the presence or absence of any particular word. Indeed, the same utterance may be used to present either a deductive or an inductive argument, depending on what the person advancing it believes.

Consider as an example:. If it is the intention of the speaker that the evidence is of this sort, then the argument is deductive. He or she may merely believe that nearly all champagne is made in France, and may be reasoning probabilistically. If this is his or her intention, then the argument is inductive.

As noted, the distinction between deductive and inductive has to do with the strength of the justification that the arguer intends that the premises provide for the conclusion. Another complication in our discussion of deduction and induction is that the arguer might intend the premises to justify the conclusion when in fact the premises provide no justification at all. Here is an example:. All odd numbers are integers.

All even numbers are integers. Therefore, all odd numbers are even numbers. Therefore, this argument is still deductive. It is not inductive. Given a set of premises and their intended conclusion, we analysts will ask whether it is deductively valid, and, if so, whether it is also deductively sound.

If it is not deductively valid, then we may go on to assess whether it is inductively strong. We are very likely to use the information that the argument is not deductively valid to ask ourselves what premises, if they were to be assumed, would make the argument be valid.

Then we might ask whether these premises were implicit and intended originally. Similarly, we might ask what premises are needed to improve the strength of an inductive argument, and we might ask whether these premises were intended all along.

If so, then we change our mind about what argument existed was back in the original passage. So, the application of deductive and inductive standards is used in the process of extracting the argument from the passage within which it is embedded.

The process goes like this: Extract the argument from the passage; assess it with deductive and inductive standards; perhaps revise the decision about which argument existed in the original passage; then reassess this new argument using our deductive and inductive standards. Implicit premises and implicit features of explicit premises can play important roles in argument evaluation. Suppose we want to know whether Julius Caesar did conquer Rome.

In response, some historian might point out that it could be concluded with certainty from these two pieces of information:. That would produce a valid argument. Here is why. Maybe Caesar was the general at one time, but Tiberius was the general at the time of the river crossing and Rome conquering. Deductive and Inductive Arguments When assessing the quality of an argument , we ask how well its premises support its conclusion.

For example, this is a reasonably strong inductive argument: Today, John said he likes Romona. So, John likes Romona today. An argument is valid if the truth of all its premises forces the conclusion to be true. An argument is valid if it would be inconsistent for all its premises to be true and its conclusion to be false.

An argument is valid if its conclusion follows with certainty from its premises. An argument is valid if it has no counterexample, that is, a possible situation that makes all the premises true and the conclusion false. Consider how the rules of formal logic apply to this deductive argument: John is ill.

Here is the form of any argument having the structure of modus ponens: P If P, then Q So, Q The capital letters should be thought of as variables that can be replaced with declarative sentences, or statements, or propositions, namely items that are true or false. Here is a somewhat strong inductive argument having the form of an argument based on authority: The police said John committed the murder.

Here is a stronger inductive argument based on better evidence: Two independent witnesses claimed John committed the murder. Proofs that make use of mathematical induction typically take the following form: Property P is true of the natural number 0.

Consider as an example: Dom Perignon is a champagne, so it must be made in France. Here is an example: All odd numbers are integers.

In response, some historian might point out that it could be concluded with certainty from these two pieces of information: The general of the Roman Legions of Gaul crossed the Rubicon River and conquered Rome. Caesar was the general of the Roman Legions in Gaul at that time. An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.

The Difference Between Deductive and Inductive Reasoning

Most everyone who thinks about how to solve problems in a formal way has run across the concepts of deductive and inductive reasoning. Both deduction and induction help us navigate real-world problems, such as who committed a crime, the most likely cause of an accident, or how many planets might contain life in the Milky Way galaxy. Both deduction and induction are a type of inference, which means reaching a conclusion based on evidence and reasoning. Deduction moves from idea to observation, while induction moves from observation to idea. Deduction is idea-first, followed by observations and a conclusion.


There is A LOT of information in this PDF. Please expressed also by saying that​, in a deductive argument, the premises are intended to provide such The difference between the two kinds of arguments does not lie solely in the words used.


Deductive Reasoning vs. Inductive Reasoning

Published on April 18, by Raimo Streefkerk. Revised on November 11, The main difference between inductive and deductive reasoning is that inductive reasoning aims at developing a theory while deductive reasoning aims at testing an existing theory. Inductive reasoning moves from specific observations to broad generalizations, and deductive reasoning the other way around. Table of contents Inductive research approach Deductive research approach Combining inductive and deductive research.

Inductive vs. deductive reasoning

When assessing the quality of an argument , we ask how well its premises support its conclusion. More specifically, we ask whether the argument is either deductively valid or inductively strong. An argument in which the premises do succeed in guaranteeing the conclusion is called a deductively valid argument.

Deductive reasoning uses given information, premises or accepted general rules to reach a proven conclusion. On the other hand, inductive logic or reasoning involves making generalizations based upon behavior observed in specific cases. Deductive arguments are either valid or invalid. But inductive logic allows for the conclusions to be wrong even if the premises upon which it is based are correct. So inductive arguments are either strong or weak. For example: All men are mortal.


In this article, we are going to tell you the basic differences between inductive and deductive reasoning, which will help you to understand them better. Page 3.


Comparison chart

In the study of logical reasoning, arguments can be separated into two categories: deductive and inductive. Deductive reasoning is sometimes described as a "top-down" form of logic, while inductive reasoning is considered "bottom-up. A deductive argument is one in which true premises guarantee a true conclusion. In other words, it is impossible for the premises to be true but the conclusion false. Thus, the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises and inferences. In this way, a true premise is supposed to lead to a definitive proof truth for the claim conclusion.

If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your browser. Donate Login Sign up Search for courses, skills, and videos. Using deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning example 2. Using inductive reasoning.

Deductive and Inductive Logic in Arguments

Reasoning in artificial intelligence has two important forms, Inductive reasoning, and Deductive reasoning. Both reasoning forms have premises and conclusions, but both reasoning are contradictory to each other.

The process of thinking about something, in a rational manner, so as to draw valid conclusions, is known as Reasoning. It is a daily activity that we use to make decisions, which involves the construction of thoughts and converting them into a proposition to give reasons on why we have opted for a particular alternative over the other. Reasoning logic can take two forms — inductive reasoning or deductive reasoning. The inductive reasoning follows a particular flow or behaviour so as to make inferences. Conversely, deductive reasoning uses available information, facts or premises to arrive at a conclusion.

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In logic, we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches.

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