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- Designing Experiments and Analyzing Data: A Model Comparison ..., Volume 1
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- Designing Experiments and Analyzing Data: A Model Comparison Perspective
K-2 , , Conduct your own comparative study. It can be an observational study or an experimental study.
Designing Experiments and Analyzing Data: A Model Comparison ..., Volume 1
An overview of research designs relevant to nursing: Part 1: Quantitative research designs. Valmi D. This three part series of articles provides a brief overview of relevant research designs in nursing. The first article in the series presents the most frequently used quantitative research designs. Strategies for non-experimental and experimental research designs used to generate and refine nursing knowledge are described.
In addition, the importance of quantitative designs and the role they play in developing evidence-based practice are discussed. Nursing care needs to be determined by the results of sound research rather than by clinical preferences or tradition. Descriptors: research; nursing research; quantitative analysis; methodology; nursing. A research design is the framework or guide used for the planning, implementation, and analysis of a study It is the plan for answering the research question or hypothesis.
Different types of questions or hypotheses demand different types of research designs, so it is important to have a broad preparation and understanding of the different types of research designs available. Research designs are most often classified as either quantitative or qualitative.
Quantitative research designs most often reflect a deterministic philosophy that is rooted in the post-positivist paradigm, or school of thought. The post-positivist paradigm adopts the philosophy that reality can be discovered, however only imperfectly and in a probabilistic sense. The approach is typically deductive - where most ideas or concepts are reduced into variables and the relationship between or among them are tested 1,3.
The knowledge that results is based on careful observation and measurement and interpretation of objective reality. In contrast, qualitative research designs are rooted in the naturalistic paradigm. The approach to study is inductive, rather than deductive, and begins with the assumption that reality is subjective, not objective, and that multiple realities exist, rather than just one 1,3. When little is known about a particular phenomenon, experience, or concept, a qualitative design is often used first.
Quantitative research designs primarily involve the analysis of numbers in order to answer the research question or hypothesis, while qualitative designs primarily involve the analysis of words. Quantitative research designs adopt objective, rigorous, and systematic strategies for generating and refining knowledge They primarily use deductive reasoning and generalization. Deductive reasoning is the process in which the researcher begins with an established theory or framework, where concepts have already been reduced into variables, and then gathers evidence to assess, or test, whether the theory or framework is supported 1.
Generalization is the extent to which conclusions developed from evidence collected from a sample can be extended to the larger population 1. Quantitative research is most often about quantifying relationships between or among variables - the independent or predictor variable s and the dependent or outcome variable s.
Broadly, quantitative research designs are classified as either non-experimental or experimental Table 1. Non-experimental designs are used to describe, differentiate, or examine associations, as opposed to direct relationships, between or among variables, groups, or situations.
There is no random assignment, control groups, or manipulation of variables, as these designs use observation only. The most common non-experimental designs are descriptive or correlational studies. Non-experimental designs are often further classified according to timing of data collection, cross-sectional or longitudinal , or according to the timing of the experience or event being studied, retrospective or prospective 1,5.
In a cross-sectional study , variables are identified one point in time and the relationships between them are determined. In a longitudinal study , data are collected at different points over time.
In a retrospective study, an event or phenomenon identified in the present is linked to factors or variables in the past. In a prospective study , or cohort study, potential factors and variables identified in the present are linked to potential outcomes in the future. Non-experimental designs do not have random assignment, manipulation of variables, or comparison groups. The researcher observes what occurs naturally without intervening in any way. There are many reasons for undertaking non-experimental designs.
First, a number of characteristics or variables are not subject or amenable to experimental manipulation or randomization. Further, some variables cannot or should not be manipulated for ethical reasons. In some instances, independent variables have already occurred, so no control over them is possible. Non-experimental designs may resemble the posttest-only experiment. However, there is a natural assignment to the condition or group being studied, as opposed to random assignment, and the intervention or condition X is something that has happened naturally, not imposed or manipulated.
Non-experimental designs are typically classified as either descriptive or correlational Table 1. Descriptive, or exploratory studies are used when little is known about a particular phenomenon 1,6. The researcher observes, describes, and documents various aspects of a phenomenon. There is no manipulation of variables or search for cause and effect related to the phenomenon. Descriptive designs describe what actually exists, determine the frequency with which it occurs, and categorizes the information.
Researchers pose Level I research questions 2, Table 1. The results provide the knowledge base for potential hypotheses that direct subsequent correlational, quasi-experimental, and experimental studies. The two most common types of quantitative descriptive designs are: case control and comparative 1,6.
Case Control Studies. Case control studies involve a description of cases with and without a pre-existing condition or exposure. The cases, subjects, or units of study can be an individual, a family, or a group. Case control studies are more feasible than experiments in cases in which an outcome is rare or takes years to develop.
This design is also known as a case report or case study. Comparative Studies. Comparative studies are also called ex post facto or causal-comparative studies. These studies describe the differences in variables that occur naturally between two or more cases, subjects, or units of study.
Researchers who use a comparative design normally pose hypotheses about the differences in variables between or among two or more units. The main difference between this approach and the quasi-experimental design is the lack of researcher control of the variables. Correlational designs involve the systematic investigation of the nature of relationships, or associations between and among variables, rather than direct cause-effect relationships.
Correlational designs are typically cross-sectional 1,6. These designs are used to examine if changes in one or more variable are related to changes in another variable s. This is referred to as co-variance. Correlations analyze direction, degree, magnitude, and strength of the relationships or associations. The results from correlational studies provide the means for generating hypotheses to be tested in quasi-experimental and experimental studies. Three of the most common correlational designs include: descriptive , predictive , and model testing correlational design 1,6.
Descriptive Correlational Designs. Descriptive correlational studies describe the variables and the relationships that occur naturally between and among them. Predictive Correlational Designs. Predictive correlational studies predict the variance of one or more variables based on the variance of another variable s. As with experimental designs, the study variables are classified as independent predictor and dependent outcome.
However, these variables are not manipulated, but occur naturally. Model Testing Correlational Designs. Model testing correlational studies examine, or pilot test, proposed relationships for a model or theory.
However, the variables are not manipulated, but occur naturally. Experimental designs typically use random assignment, manipulation of an independent variable s , and strict controls 1,6,9.
These characteristics provide increased confidence of cause-and-effect relationships. Random assignment means that each subject had equal chance to be assigned to either the control or experimental group. The use of random assignment of subjects attempts to eliminate systematic bias. Random assignment is different from random sampling. Random sampling means that each subject had an equal chance of being selected from a larger group to participate in the study.
This approach is often used in survey research to facilitate generalization. However, it is the random assignment to different conditions that distinguishes a true experimental design. To be classified as true experimental, there must be randomization, a control group, and manipulation of a variable when examining the direct causal or predicted relationship between variables. When any one of these requirements is not met, the design is no longer a true experiment and is classified as quasi -experimental.
True experimental designs examine the cause and effect relationships between independent predictor and dependent outcome variables under highly controlled conditions. The simplest of all experimental designs is the posttest-only control group. Other common true-experimental designs include the posttest only control group design , pretest-posttest control group design , Soloman four group design , and cross-over design 1,6,9. Posttest Only Control Group Design.
In posttest only control group design, subjects are randomly assigned R to either a control or an experimental group. The groups are not pretested. One group is exposed to a treatment X or series of different treatments X 1 , X 2 , and then both groups are posttested O. Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design. In the pretest-posttest control group design, or classic experiment, subjects are randomly assigned R to either a control or experimental group.
Both groups are pretested O. The experimental group is exposed to a treatment X or different treatments X 1 , X 2 , and then both groups are posttested O. Solomon Four-Group Design. In Solomon four-group design, subjects are randomly assigned R to one of four different groups.
Designing experiments and analyzing data PDF Download
The design of experiments DOE , DOX , or experimental design is the design of any task that aims to describe and explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation. The term is generally associated with experiments in which the design introduces conditions that directly affect the variation, but may also refer to the design of quasi-experiments , in which natural conditions that influence the variation are selected for observation. In its simplest form, an experiment aims at predicting the outcome by introducing a change of the preconditions, which is represented by one or more independent variables , also referred to as "input variables" or "predictor variables. Experimental design involves not only the selection of suitable independent, dependent, and control variables, but planning the delivery of the experiment under statistically optimal conditions given the constraints of available resources. There are multiple approaches for determining the set of design points unique combinations of the settings of the independent variables to be used in the experiment. Main concerns in experimental design include the establishment of validity , reliability , and replicability. For example, these concerns can be partially addressed by carefully choosing the independent variable, reducing the risk of measurement error, and ensuring that the documentation of the method is sufficiently detailed.
The authors Scott E. Maxwell , Harold D. Delaney , and Ken Kelley first apply fundamental principles to simple experimental designs followed by an application of the same principles to more complicated designs. Their integrative conceptual framework better prepares readers to understand the logic behind a general strategy of data analysis that is appropriate for a wide variety of designs, which allows for the introduction of more complex topics that are generally omitted from other books. Detailed solutions for some of the exercises and realistic data sets are also provided on this website. The pedagogical approach used throughout the book enables readers to gain an overview of experimental design, from conceptualization of the research question to analysis of the data. We aim for the book to be useful for students and researchers seeking the optimal way to design their studies and analyze the resulting data.
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Designing Experiments and Analyzing Data: A Model Comparison Perspective
An overview of research designs relevant to nursing: Part 1: Quantitative research designs. Valmi D. This three part series of articles provides a brief overview of relevant research designs in nursing.
Quality Glossary Definition: Design of experiments.
This volume is a further step in the dialogue between psychology and religion. The central question is how psychology's understanding of human nature might be informed, altered, or expanded by historic Judeo-Christian perspectives. A majority of t Du kanske gillar. Soybeans Jason E Maxwell Inbunden. Ladda ned.
Data for statistical studies are obtained by conducting either experiments or surveys.
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