Rfid And Contactless Smart Card Applications PdfBy Waifengodi In and pdf 17.05.2021 at 08:26 3 min read
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A contactless smart card is a contactless credential whose dimensions are credit-card size. Its embedded integrated circuits can store and sometimes process data and communicate with a terminal via NFC.
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- Security for Contactless Smart Cards Using Cryptography
- Contactless smart card
Unlike EM Electro-Mechanical and RF Radio Frequency systems, which have been used in libraries for decades, RFID-based systems move beyond security to become tracking systems that combine security with more efficient tracking of materials throughout the library, including easier Regex match all files in folder.
Contactless Smartcards are typically used in fields of electronic ticketing, transport and access control. More recently, they have been for electronic payment transactions. This apparent reluctance to the use of contactless smartcards in fields that involve money transactions as well as many other fields and applications is because contactless technology is erroneously believed to be less secure than contact technology.
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A contactless smart card is a contactless credential whose dimensions are credit-card size. Its embedded integrated circuits can store and sometimes process data and communicate with a terminal via NFC. Commonplace uses include transit tickets, bank cards and passports. There are two broad categories of contactless smart cards.
Memory cards contain non-volatile memory storage components, and perhaps some specific security logic. Contactless smart cards can be used for identification, authentication, and data storage. Contactless smart cards were first used for electronic ticketing in in Seoul, South Korea.
Since then, smart cards with contactless interfaces have been increasingly popular for payment and ticketing applications such as mass transit. Globally, contactless fare collection is being employed for efficiencies in public transit. In more recent times, Visa and MasterCard have agreed to standards for general "open loop" payments on their networks, with millions of cards deployed in the U. Smart cards are being introduced in personal identification and entitlement schemes at regional, national, and international levels.
In Malaysia, the compulsory national ID scheme MyKad includes 8 different applications and is rolled out for 18 million users. Contactless smart cards are being integrated into ICAO biometric passports to enhance security for international travel. Contactless smart card readers use radio waves to communicate with, and both read and write data on a smart card. When used for electronic payment, they are commonly located near PIN pads , cash registers and other places of payment. When the readers are used for public transit they are commonly located on fare boxes, ticket machines, turnstiles, and station platforms as a standalone unit.
When used for security, readers are usually located to the side of an entry door. Novosibirsk Russia. Transport fare collection terminal CFT. Smart card being used to pay for public transportation in the Helsinki area.
An electronic ticket machine used to read prepaid cards and issue tickets in Mumbai. These cards require only close proximity to an antenna to complete a transaction. They are often used when transactions must be processed quickly or hands-free, such as on mass transit systems, where a smart card can be used without even removing it from a wallet. The following tables list smart cards used for public transportation and other electronic purse applications.
A related contactless technology is RFID radio frequency identification. In certain cases, it can be used for applications similar to those of contactless smart cards, such as for electronic toll collection. RFID devices usually do not include writeable memory or microcontroller processing capability as contactless smart cards often do.
There are dual-interface cards that implement contactless and contact interfaces on a single card with some shared storage and processing. Like smart cards with contacts, contactless cards do not have a battery. Instead, they use a built-in inductor , using the principle of resonant inductive coupling , to capture some of the incident electromagnetic signal, rectify it, and use it to power the card's electronics.
Since the start of using the Seoul Transportation Card , numerous cities have moved to the introduction of contactless smart cards as the fare media in an automated fare collection system. In a number of cases these cards carry an electronic wallet as well as fare products, and can be used for low-value payments. Starting around , a major application of the technology has been contactless payment credit and debit cards.
Some major examples include:. Roll-outs started in in the United States, and in in some parts of Europe and Asia Singapore. Contactless MSD cards are similar to magnetic stripe cards in terms of the data they share across the contactless interface. They are only distributed in the U. Payment occurs in a similar fashion to mag-stripe, without a PIN and often in off-line mode depending on parameters of the terminal. The security level of such a transaction is better than a mag-stripe card, as the chip cryptographically generates a code which can be verified by the card issuer's systems.
Contactless EMV cards have two interfaces contact and contactless and work as a normal EMV card via their contact interface. The contactless interface provides similar data to a contact EMV transaction, but usually a subset of the capabilities e. EMV cards may carry an "offline balance" stored in their chip, similar to the electronic wallet or "purse" that users of transit smart cards are used to. A quickly growing application is in digital identification cards.
In this application, the cards are used for authentication of identity. The most common example is in conjunction with a PKI. The smart card will store an encrypted digital certificate issued from the PKI along with any other relevant or needed information about the card holder.
Examples include the U. When combined with biometrics, smart cards can provide two- or three-factor authentication. Smart cards are not always a privacy-enhancing technology, for the subject carries possibly incriminating information about him all the time. By employing contactless smart cards, that can be read without having to remove the card from the wallet or even the garment it is in, one can add even more authentication value to the human carrier of the cards.
The Malaysian government uses smart card technology in the identity cards carried by all Malaysian citizens and resident non-citizens. Smart cards have been advertised as suitable for personal identification tasks, because they are engineered to be tamper resistant. The embedded chip of a smart card usually implements some cryptographic algorithm. There are, however, several methods of recovering some of the algorithm's internal state.
Differential power analysis  involves measuring the precise time and electric current [ dubious — discuss ] required for certain encryption or decryption operations.
This is most often used against public key algorithms such as RSA in order to deduce the on-chip private key, although some implementations of symmetric ciphers can be vulnerable to timing or power attacks as well. Smart cards can be physically disassembled by using acid, abrasives, or some other technique to obtain direct, unrestricted access to the on-board microprocessor.
Although such techniques obviously involve a fairly high risk of permanent damage to the chip, they permit much more detailed information e. The radio frequency, however, can be eavesdropped within several meters once powered-up. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about smart cards that use radio to transmit data. For smart cards that use electrical connectors, see smart card.
See also: List of smart cards. Main article: Contactless payment. Main article: Power analysis. Cambridge University Press. Asia Pacific Smart Card Association. Archived from the original on Retrieved Graz University of Technology. Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 13 December Transport for London. Mayor of London. Retrieved 18 July Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November All accuracy disputes Articles with disputed statements from March Articles with disputed statements from September Articles with unsourced statements from December Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December Namespaces Article Talk.
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Security for Contactless Smart Cards Using Cryptography
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In this study we propose a manufacturing control framework based on radio-frequency identification RFID technology and a distributed information system to construct a mass-customization production process in a loosely coupled shop-floor control environment. On the basis of this framework, we developed RFID middleware and an integrated information system for tracking and controlling the manufacturing process flow. A bicycle manufacturer was used to demonstrate the prototype system. The findings of this study were that the proposed framework can improve the visibility and traceability of the manufacturing process as well as enhance process quality control and real-time production pedigree access. Using this framework, an enterprise can easily integrate an RFID-based system into its manufacturing environment to facilitate mass customization and a just-in-time production model.
RFID application, driven by government agencies, such as the US Department of. Defense most relevant to contactless smart card systems.
Contactless smart card
A smart card , chip card , or integrated circuit card ICC or IC card is a physical electronic authorization device, used to control access to a resource. It is typically a plastic credit card -sized card with an embedded integrated circuit IC chip. Others are contactless , and some are both.
It includes revisions on chapters devoted to the physical principles of RFID systems and microprocessors, and supplies up-to-date details on relevant standards and regulations. It also describes the technical limits of RFID systems. Computer and electronics engineers in security system development, microchip designers, and materials handling specialists benefit from this book, as do automation, industrial and transport engineers.
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