Physical And Chemical Properties Of Aspirin PdfBy Sylvie C. In and pdf 13.05.2021 at 11:50 4 min read
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Chemical property Uses How Aspirin is used in Ischemic Stroke therapy Production method Category Toxicity grading Acute toxicity Flammable hazardous characteristics Handling and storage characteristics Fire extinguishing agent Occupational standard. CAS No. Request For Quotation. The username will be used as the login user name and retrieve the password. Boiling point: Store at RT. Keep dry. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, strong acids, various other compounds such as iodides, iron salts, quinine salts, etc.
Acetylsalicylic acid, also known as aspirin, is an analgesic-antipyretic medicine made by salicylic acid interacting with acetic anhydride. It is a white crystalline powder, odorless, stable in dry air. It will be slowly hydrolyzed to be salicylic acid and acetic acid in moist air, and aqueous solution has acidic reaction. Slightly soluble in water, soluble in ethanol, ethyl ether, chloroform, sodium hydroxide solution and sodium carbonate solution.
Pharmacological actions Acetylsalicylic acid is one of the traditional antipyretic analgesics, as well as the role of platelet aggregation. Acetylsalicylic acid in the body has the characteristics of the antithrombotic, can reduce the formation of obstructive blood clots in surrounding arteries, and inhibit release of platelet response and endogenous ADP, 5-HT, etc. The mechanism of action of acetylsalicylic acid is to make platelets cyclooxygenase acetylation, thus inhibiting the formation of ring peroxide, and TXA2 formation is also reduced as well.
At the mean time make the platelet membrane protein acetylation, and inhibit platelet membrane enzyme, which helps to inhibit platelet function. As the cyclooxygenase is inhibited, it impacts blood vessel wall synthesized to be PGI2, the platelet TXA2 synthetic enzymes also to be inhibited; so it would impact formation of both TXA2 and PGI2 when it is large doses.
Suitable for ischemic heart disease, after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting, prevent transient ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction and reduce the incidence of arrhythmia. The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook He Liao Pu.
Uses 1. Acetylsalicylic acid is the raw material for rodenticide intermediates 4-hydroxycoumarin. Used to make outdoor structural members and equipment parts exposed in highlights, such as the automobile body, agricultural machinery parts, meters and electric lamps, road marking, etc.
It is the earliest applied, the most popular and the most common antipyretic analgesics anti-rheumatism medicine, has aspects of pharmacological effects as antipyretic-analgesic and anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet aggregation and works quickly and effectively. Overdosage can be easily diagnosed and treated, with rare allergic reactions. Often used to cold fever, headache, neuralgia, joint ache, muscle pain, rheumatic fever, acute wet sex arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and toothache, etc.
Listed in National Essential Medicine List. Acetylsalicylic acid also works as an intermediate of other medicines. Aspirin, clopidogrel, and extended-release dipyridamole plus aspirin are all considered first-line antiplatelet agents. The combination of aspirin and clopidogrel can only be recommended in patients with ischemic stroke and a recent history of myocardial infarction or coronary stent placement and then only with ultra-low-dose aspirin to minimize bleeding risk.
Production method Acetylation of salicylic acid: add acetic anhydride feeding ratio is 0. Handling and storage characteristics Warehouse needs to be ventiIative and dry with low temperature; separate it from oxidant and food additives.
Fire extinguishing agent Water fog, foam, carbon dioxide, sandy soil. Aspirin is the most widely used medication in the world. Chemical Properties Aspirin USAN , also known as acetyl salicylic acid abbreviated ASA , is a salicylate drug, often used as an analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an anti - inflammatory medication.
Aspirin may be effective at preventing certain types of cancer, particularly colorectal cancer. The main undesirable side effects of aspirin taken by mouth are gastrointestinal ulcers, stomach bleeding, and tinnitus, especially in higher doses.
In children and adolescents, aspirin is no longer indicated to control flu - like symptoms or the symptoms of chickenpox or other viral illnesses, because of the risk of Reye's syndrome. Though it, and others in its group called the salicylates, have similar effects antipyretic, antiinflammatory, analgesic to the other NSAIDs and inhibit the same enzyme cyclooxygenase, aspirin but not the other salicylates does so in an irreversible manner and, unlike others, affects more the COX-1 variant than the COX-2 variant of the enzyme.
Today, aspirin is one of the most widely used medications in the world, with an estimated 40, tonnes of it being consumed each year. In countries where Aspirin is a registered trademark owned by Bayer, the generic term is acetylsalicylic acid ASA. Chemical Properties White Solid Chemical Properties Acetylsalicylic acid is a white crystalline solid with a slightly bitter taste.
Synthesis The synthesis of aspirin is classified as an esterification reaction. This process yields aspirin and acetic acid, which is considered a byproduct of this reaction. Polymorphism Polymorphism, or the ability of a substance to form more than one crystal structure, is important in the development of pharmaceutical ingredients.
Many drugs are receiving regulatory approval for only a single crystal form or polymorph. For a long time, only one crystal structure for aspirin was known.
That aspirin might have a second crystalline form was suspected since the s. The elusive second polymorph was first discovered by Vishweshwar and coworkers in , and fine structural details were given by Bond et al. Originator Entab,Mayrand,US, History The use of salicylic acid goes back thousands of years, and there are numerous accounts of the medicinal properties of plants from the Salix willow and Myrtaceae Myrtle families.
Writings from ancient civilizations indicate the use of willow bark in Mesopotamia and myrtle leaves in Egypt as medicines existing several thousand years b. Hippocrates — b. Willow and oil of wintergreen was used as medications by native Americans. The chemical responsible for the medicinal properties in willow and oil of wintergreen are forms of salicylates, a general name to describe compounds containing the general structure of salicylic acid. Willows genus Salix contain salicin and oil of wintergreen contains methyl salicylate.
Although the use of willow bark and oil of wintergreen as an accepted antipyretic and analgesic has occurred for at least 2, years, by the 19th century medicines were starting to be synthesized in chemical laboratories. A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with moA cyclooxygenase inhibitor activity.
Indications Aspirin is available as capsules, tablets, enteric-coated tablets Ecotrin , timed-release tablets ZORprin , buffered tablets Ascriptin, Bufferin , and as rectal suppositories. Sodium salicylate is available generically. Other salicylates include choline salicylate Arthropan , choline magnesium trisalicylate Trilisate , and magnesium salicylate Momentum. Manufacturing Process As described in US Patent 2,,, a glass-lined reactor of 1, gallons capacity, fitted with a water-cooled reflux condenser, thermometers with automatic temperature registers and an efficient agitator, is employed.
To start the process, a mother liquor is made by dissolving 1, kg of acetic anhydride 15 mols in 1, kg of toluene. The acetylsalicylic acid precipitates as large, regular crystals. The mother liquor is now filtered or centrifuged from the precipitated acetylsalicylic acid and the filter cake is pressed or centrifuged as free of mother liquor as possible. The filtrate from this first batch will comprise a solution of to kg of unprecipitated acetylsalicylic acid 1. The reaction mixture will now contain kg of unprecipitated acetylsalicylic acid 1.
This mother liquor is recycled to the first step of the process for reaction with another batch of 1, kg of salicylic acid. On recirculating the mother liquor, the yield of pure acetylsalicylic acid is 1, to 1, kg per batch. Therapeutic Function Analgesic, Antipyretic, Antiinflammatory World Health Organization WHO Acetylsalicylic acid, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic agent, was introduced into medicine in and has since been widely available in over-the-counter preparations.
Recent studies carried out in the USA have shown an association between acetylsalicylic acid consumption in children and the development of Reye's syndrome a rare condition characterized by a combination of encephalopathy and liver disorder and usually preceded by an acute viral illness, such as influenza, diarrhoea, or chickenpox.
Many drug regulatory authorities have acted to caution against the use of the drug in children and young adults with febrile conditions. Even within this group the risk of exposure is remote and has been estimated to be of the order of 1. This warning also concerns products containing other salicylates. The new indication of acetylsalicylic acid - prophylaxis of myocardial infarction due to its antithrombotic effect - requires loneterm use and may lead to serious adverse reactions, including cerebral haemorrhage.
Biological Functions Aspirin is one of the most important NSAIDs because it decreases pain at predominantly peripheral sites with little cortical interaction and thus has few CNS effects. Acquired resistance Aspirin is rapidly absorbed in the stomach and quickly degraded by plasma cholinesterases half-life, 15—20 min. Higher doses of aspirin only contribute to its side effects, especially internal bleeding and upper gastrointestinal irritations.
General Description Aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid Aspro, Empirin , was introducedinto medicine by Dreser in Aspirin occurs as white crystals or as a white crystallinepowder and must be kept under dry conditions. It is not advisableto keep aspirin products in the kitchen or bathroomcabinets, because aspirin is slowly decomposed into aceticand salicylic acids in the presence of heat and moisture. Several proprietaries e.
One of the better antacids is dihydroxyaluminumaminoacetate. Aspirin is unusually effectivewhen prescribed with calcium glutamate. The more stable,nonirritant calcium acetylsalicylate is formed, and theglutamate portion glutamic acid maintains a pH of 3.
Practically all salts of aspirin, except those of aluminumand calcium, are unstable for pharmaceutical use. Thesesalts appear to have fewer undesirable side effects and induceanalgesia faster than aspirin. A timed release preparationof aspirin is available. It does not appear to offer anyadvantages over aspirin, except for bedtime dosage. General Description Aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, has an inhibitoryeffect on platelet aggregation not only because of its abilityto inhibit cyclooxygenase COX but also because of its ability to acetylate the enzyme.
Aspirin irreversibly inhibitsCOX prostaglandin H synthase , which is the enzyme involvedin converting arachidonate to prostaglandin G2 andultimately thromboxane 2, an inducer of platelet aggregation. Thisexplains why other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agentsthat are capable of inhibiting the COX enzyme do not act asantithrombotics—they are not capable of acetylating thisenzyme.
General Description Odorless white crystals or crystalline powder with a slightly bitter taste. Has been involved in dust cloud explosions. Water insoluble. Solution in water is acid to methyl red indicator. Reactivity Profile The active ingredient in common aspirin.
Incompatible with oxidizers and strong acids. Also incompatible with strong bases. May react with water or nucleophiles e. May also react with acetanilide, amidopyrine, phenazone, hexamine, iron salts, phenobarbitone sodium, quinine salts, potassium and sodium iodides, alkali hydroxides, carbonates, stearates and paracetanol.
Chemical property Uses How Aspirin is used in Ischemic Stroke therapy Production method Category Toxicity grading Acute toxicity Flammable hazardous characteristics Handling and storage characteristics Fire extinguishing agent Occupational standard. CAS No. Request For Quotation. The username will be used as the login user name and retrieve the password.
Aspirin, which the chemical name acetylsalicylic acid ASA , is medication extensively used around the world as an anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic. The molecular mass is The molecule is formed by an aromatic ring which has two functional groups in position -orto : the first substituent is a carboxylic acid and the second an ester group. The molecular geometry is planar because the phenyl ring and the carboxylic groups which have a sp2 hybridization. Its chemical structure can be written as below, in the common representations used for organic molecules.
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Aspirin acetylsalicylic acid, ASA is one of the most widely used analgesics. Aspirin is poorly soluble in water and causes gastrointestinal GI irritation. The bioavailability of several kinds of drugs solely depends on their dissolution properties in biological systems. In this direction, the physicochemical property of aspirin with phosphoric acid as an excipient has been studied. The kinetic energy obtained from viscosity method indicates that drug-excipient interactions are predominant and kinetic energy decreases with increase in concentration of the excipient.
Aspirin , also known as acetylsalicylic acid ASA , is a medication used to reduce pain , fever , or inflammation. One common adverse effect is an upset stomach. A precursor to aspirin found in leaves from the willow tree has been used for its health effects for at least 2, years.