Gastrointestinal System Anatomy And Physiology Pdf


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28.05.2021 at 09:38
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gastrointestinal system anatomy and physiology pdf

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As adults, we know that a healthy digestive system is essential for good health because it converts food into raw materials that build and fuel our body cells.

Did you know the digestive system is split into two main groups?

Basic Anatomy and Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

The function of the digestive system is digestion and absorption. Digestion is the breakdown of food into small molecules, which are then absorbed into the body. The digestive system is divided into two major parts:. The treatment of food in the digestive system involves the following seven processes:. Propulsion is the movement of food along the digestive tract. The major means of propulsion is peristalsis, a series of alternating contractions and relaxations of smooth muscle that lines the walls of the digestive organs and that forces food to move forward. Secretion of digestive enzymes and other substances liquefies, adjusts the pH of, and chemically breaks down the food.

Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract , GI tract , GIT , digestive tract , digestion tract , alimentary canal is the tract from the mouth to the anus which includes all the organs of the digestive system in humans and other animals. Food taken in through the mouth is digested to extract nutrients and absorb energy, and the waste expelled as feces. The mouth , esophagus , stomach and intestines are all part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. All vertebrates and most invertebrates have a digestive tract. The sponges , cnidarians , and ctenophores are the early invertebrates with an incomplete digestive tract having just one opening instead of two, where food is taken in and waste expelled.

The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body. Food passes through a long tube inside the body known as the alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract GI tract. The alimentary canal is made up of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines. In addition to the alimentary canal, there are several important accessory organs that help your body to digest food but do not have food pass through them. Accessory organs of the digestive system include the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

This article — the fifth in a six-part series describes the physiology and functions of the large intestine, the last portion of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as common conditions of both the small and large intestine. In the large intestine — the final section of the gastrointestinal tract — absorption of water and electrolytes takes place and colonic bacteria complete the process of chemical digestion. The large intestine is also where faeces are formed from the remains of food and fluid combined with by-products of the body. Intestinal content is pushed back and forth by haustral contractions and antiperistaltic contractions, until faeces are finally pushed towards the anal canal by mass movements. This article, the fifth in a six-part series exploring the gastrointestinal tract, describes the anatomy and functions of the large intestine. Citation: Nigam Y et al Gastrointestinal tract 5: the anatomy and functions of the large intestine.


Discuss the process of digestion, transport, and absorption within the gastrointestinal system. Identify the functions of the accessory organs of the gastrointestinal.


Digestive System

The gastrointestinal tract begins at the mouth and ends at the anus Fig. Its purpose is to mechanically and enzymatically digest food, absorb nutrients and water, protect the body from microbial invasion, and expel feces. Food enters the mouth where mechanical and enzymatic digestion begins and then is propelled down the esophagus and into the stomach where digestion continues. As the food bolus passes through the small intestine, further digestion and absorption take place with the help of enzymes secreted by the stomach, small intestine, liver, and pancreas.

The gastrointestinal tract GIT consists of a hollow muscular tube starting from the oral cavity, where food enters the mouth, continuing through the pharynx, oesophagus, stomach and intestines to the rectum and anus, where food is expelled. There are various accessory organs that assist the tract by secreting enzymes to help break down food into its component nutrients. Thus the salivary glands, liver, pancreas and gall bladder have important functions in the digestive system. Food is propelled along the length of the GIT by peristaltic movements of the muscular walls.

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Gastrointestinal system anatomy

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