Urban Forms And Colonial Confrontations Pdf

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These examples are then analysed and interpreted in order to illustrate their impact on Indonesian culture and politics.

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The city's population at the Census was 2,, [3] and in was estimated to be around 3,, An estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,, Algiers is located on the Mediterranean Sea and in the north-central portion of Algeria. Algiers is situated on the west side of a bay of the Mediterranean Sea. The casbah and the two quays form a triangle. This name refers to the four former islands which lay off the city's coast before becoming part of the mainland in The city's earliest history was as a small port in the Numedia where Berbers were trading with other Mediterraneans.

After the Punic Wars , the Romans eventually took over administration of the town, which they called Icosium. Its ruins now form part of the modern city's marine quarter, with the Rue de la Marine following a former Roman road. Roman cemeteries existed near Bab-el-Oued and Bab Azoun. The city was given Latin rights by the emperor Vespasian. The bishops of Icosium are mentioned as late as the 5th century, [7] but the ancient town fell into obscurity during the Muslim conquest of North Africa.

The present city was founded in by Bologhine ibn Ziri , the founder of the Berber Zirid — Sanhaja dynasty.

He had earlier built his own house and a Sanhaja center at Ashir, just south of Algiers. Although his Zirid dynasty was overthrown by Roger II of Sicily in , the Zirids had already lost control of Algiers to their cousins the Hammadids in Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a large measure of independence under Thaaliba amirs of its own due to Oran being the chief seaport of the Ziyanids. Thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Algiers and Spain.

However, Algiers continued to be of comparatively little importance until after the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, many of whom sought asylum in the city.

In , the amir of Algiers, Selim b. Teumi, invited the corsair brothers Aruj and Hayreddin Barbarossa to expel the Spaniards. Aruj came to Algiers, ordered the assassination of Selim, and seized the town and ousted the Spanish in the Capture of Algiers Hayreddin, succeeding Aruj after the latter was killed in battle against the Spaniards in the Fall of Tlemcen , was the founder of the pashaluk , which subsequently became the beylik , of Algeria.

Barbarossa lost Algiers in but regained it with the Capture of Algiers , and then formally invited the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent to accept sovereignty over the territory and to annex Algiers to the Ottoman Empire. Algiers from this time became the chief seat of the Barbary pirates. In October in the Algiers expedition , the King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sought to capture the city, but a storm destroyed a great number of his ships, and his army of some 30,, chiefly made up of Spaniards, was defeated by the Algerians under their Pasha , Hassan.

Formally part of the Ottoman Empire but essentially free from Ottoman control, starting in the 16th century Algiers turned to piracy and ransoming. Due to its location on the periphery of both the Ottoman and European economic spheres, and depending for its existence on a Mediterranean that was increasingly controlled by European shipping, backed by European navies, piracy became the primary economic activity.

Repeated attempts were made by various nations to subdue the pirates that disturbed shipping in the western Mediterranean and engaged in slave raids as far north as Iceland. Among the notable people held for ransom was the future Spanish novelist Miguel de Cervantes , who was captive in Algiers almost five years, and who wrote two plays set in Algiers of the period.

A significant number of renegades lived in Algiers at the time, Christians converted voluntarily to Islam , many fleeing the law or other problems at home. Once converted to Islam, they were safe in Algiers.

Many occupied positions of authority, such as Samson Rowlie , an Englishman who became Treasurer of Algiers. The city under Ottoman control was enclosed by a wall on all sides, including along the seafront. In this wall, five gates allowed access to the city, with five roads from each gate dividing the city and meeting in front of the Ketchaoua Mosque.

In , a citadel was constructed at the highest point in the wall. A major road running north to south divided the city in two: The upper city al-Gabal, or 'the mountain' which consisted of about fifty small quarters of Andalusian , Jewish , Moorish and Kabyle communities, and the lower city al-Wata, or 'the plains' which was the administrative, military and commercial centre of the city, mostly inhabited by Ottoman Turkish dignitaries and other upper-class families.

In August , the city was bombarded by a British squadron under Lord Exmouth a descendant of Thomas Pellew, taken in an Algerian slave raid in [15] [ self-published source? The history of Algiers from to is bound to the larger history of Algeria and its relationship to France. On July 4, , under the pretext of an affront to the French consul—whom the dey had hit with a fly-whisk when the consul said the French government was not prepared to pay its large outstanding debts to two Algerian merchants—a French army under General de Bourmont attacked the city in the invasion of Algiers.

The city capitulated the following day. Algiers became the capital of French Algeria. Many Europeans settled in Algiers, and by the early 20th century they formed a majority of the city's population. Le Corbusier was highly critical of the urban style of Algiers, describing the European district as "nothing but crumbling walls and devastated nature, the whole a sullied blot". He also criticised the difference in living standards he perceived between the European and African residents of the city, describing a situation in which "the 'civilised' live like rats in holes" whereas "the 'barbarians' live in solitude, in well-being".

Since then, despite losing its entire pied-noir population, the city has expanded massively. It now has about five million inhabitants, or 10 percent of Algeria's population—and its suburbs now cover most of the surrounding Mitidja plain. Algiers remains marked by this battle, which was characterized by merciless fighting between FLN forces which carried out a guerrilla campaign against the French military and police and pro-French Algerian soldiers, and the French Army which responded with a bloody repression, torture and blanket terrorism against the native population.

The demonstrations of May 13 during the crisis of provoked the fall of the Fourth Republic in France, as well as the return of General de Gaulle to power.

Algeria achieved independence on July 5, In October , one year before the fall of the Berlin Wall , Algiers was the site of demonstrations demanding the end of the single-party system and the creation of a real democracy baptized the "Spring of Algier".

The demonstrators were repressed by the authorities more than dead , but the movement constituted a turning point in the political history of modern Algeria. In , a new constitution was adopted that put an end to the one-party rule and saw the creation of more than fifty political parties, as well as official freedom of the press. The city became the theatre of many political demonstrations of all descriptions until In , a political entity dominated by religious conservatives called the Islamic Salvation Front engaged in a political test of wills with the authorities.

In the elections for the Algerian National Assembly, the Islamists garnered a large amount of support in the first round. Fearing an eventual win by the Islamists, the army canceled the election process, setting off a civil war between the State and armed religious conservatives which would last for a decade.

On December 11, , two car bombs exploded in Algiers. One bomb targeted two United Nations office buildings and the other targeted a government building housing the Supreme Court. The death toll was at least 62, with over two hundred injured in the attacks. Indigenous terrorist groups have been actively operating in Algeria since around Its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea aids in moderating the city's temperatures.

As a result, Algiers usually does not see the extreme temperatures that are experienced in the adjacent interior. The precipitation is higher than in most of coastal Mediterranean Spain , and similar to most of coastal Mediterranean France , as opposed to the interior North African semi-arid or arid climate.

The city and province of Algiers is composed of 13 administrative districts, sub-divided into 57 communes listed below with their populations at the and Censuses:. The main building in the Kasbah was begun in on the site of an older building, and served as the palace of the deys until the French conquest. A road has been cut through the centre of the building, the mosque turned into barracks , and the hall of audience allowed to fall into ruin.

There still remain a minaret and some marble arches and columns. Traces exist of the vaults in which were stored the treasures of the dey. It was first built by Yusuf ibn Tashfin , but reconstructed many times.

The minaret was built by the sultan of Tlemcen , in The interior resembles that of the Grand Mosque. The interior is richly decorated with various coloured marbles. Many of these marbles contain memorial inscriptions relating to the British residents voluntary and involuntary of Algiers from the time of John Tipton, the first English consul, in NB Some sources give One tablet records that in two Algerine pirate crews landed in Ireland , sacked Baltimore , and enslaved its inhabitants.

The principal entrance, reached by a flight of 23 steps, is ornamented with a portico supported by four black-veined marble columns. The roof of the nave is of Moorish plaster work. It rests on a series of arcades supported by white marble columns.

Several of these columns belonged to the original mosque. In one of the chapels was a tomb containing the bones of San Geronimo. Algiers possesses a college with schools of law, medicine, science and letters. The college buildings are large and handsome. The Bardo Museum holds some of the ancient sculptures and mosaics discovered in Algeria, together with medals and Algerian money. The port of Algiers is sheltered from all winds. There are two harbours, both artificial—the old or northern harbour and the southern or Agha harbour.

The northern harbour covers an area of 95 hectares acres. An opening in the south jetty affords an entrance into Agha harbour, constructed in Agha Bay. Agha harbour has also an independent entrance on its southern side. The inner harbour was begun in by Khair-ad-Din Barbarossa see History, below , who, to accommodated his pirate vessels, caused the island on which was Fort Penon to be connected with the mainland by a mole.

The lighthouse which occupies the site of Fort Penon was built in Algiers was a walled city from the time of the deys until the close of the 19th century. Above the altar is a statue of the Virgin depicted as a black woman. The church also contains a solid silver statue of the archangel Michael , belonging to the confraternity of Neapolitan fishermen. Villa Abd-el-Tif , former residence of the dey , was used during the French period, to accommodate French artists, chiefly painters, and winners of the Abd-el-Tif prize , among whom Maurice Boitel , for a while of two years.

Nowadays, Algerian artists are back in the villa's studios. Algiers has a population of about 3,, estimate. Algiers is an important economic, commercial and financial center, with in particular a stock exchange with a capitalisation of 60 million euros.

The city has the highest cost of living of any city in North Africa , as well as the 50th highest worldwide, as of March , having gained one position compared to the previous year. These projects will transform the city of Algiers and its surroundings by equipping them with a retail area and restoration and leisure facilities.

The first project will concentrate on the reorganization and the development of the infrastructures of the railway station "Aga" located in the downtown area.


Read more. The theme is: Staging the Museum. Deadline is 10 January , CET. More information in the PDF file below. This issue of OASE traces the role of drawing in landscape design and urbanism. We are interested in two kinds of contributions that each start from the drawing: 1.

Compiling a bibliography is a never-ending task. Comments, corrections and additions are welcome. Consolidated Urban Morphology reading list compiled by Peter J. This bibliography focuses particularly - although not exclusively - on English-language literature and on the Conzenian tradition. This is solely because of the background and linguistic limitations of its compiler! However it does contain a small number of non-English works, and makes reference to non-Conzenian traditions.

Italian Colonialism pp Cite as. The sheer presence of Italian soldiers and settlers was not enough to overcome local resistance to the idea of European rule. Violence and expropriation would prove an equally inadequate basis for long-term domination. By the late s and s, spurred by new advances in urban planning, fascist colonial administrators devised new cultural, administrative, and spatial policies to guarantee Italian interests. Much of their energy was devoted to reshaping the coastal city of Tripoli.


The main aim of author was to present the specific features of the architecture and urbanisation of Algiers — the capital of Algeria. The history of the city was marked by two great periods: Muslim domination especially from the 15th century and French colonialism in the years — Both of these have left behind numerous traces of architectural and urbanistic thought. The material effect of French domination is the architecture of modern Algiers, which took the form of a French ville, similar to Paris, Lyon or Marseille.

Public Space and Public Face: Italian Fascist Urban Planning at Tripoli’s Colonial Trade Fair

Urban forms and colonial confrontations: Algiers under French rule

Abstract Traditional Islamic cities have generally gathered orientalized gazes and perspectives, picking up from misconceptions and stereotypes that evolved during the seconf half of the 19th century and were perpectuated by colonialism. More recent scholarship has shed light on the urban organization and composition of such tissues; most of them confined to old quarters or historical centres of thriving contemporary cities within the Arab-Muslim world. In fact, one of the most striking features has been the unveiling of layered urban assemblages where exterior agents have somehow launched or interrupted an apparent islamicized continuum. Primarly, this paper wishes to search for external political factors that have designed regularly geometrized patterns in medium-sized Arab towns.

Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 1 June ; 57 2 : — Sign In or Create an Account. User Tools.

The city's population at the Census was 2,, [3] and in was estimated to be around 3,, An estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,, Algiers is located on the Mediterranean Sea and in the north-central portion of Algeria. Algiers is situated on the west side of a bay of the Mediterranean Sea. The casbah and the two quays form a triangle. This name refers to the four former islands which lay off the city's coast before becoming part of the mainland in The city's earliest history was as a small port in the Numedia where Berbers were trading with other Mediterraneans.

Urban Forms and Colonial Confrontations. Algiers under French Rule. Zeynep Çelik. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS. Berkeley · Los Angeles · Oxford.

Michael A. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above.

Сьюзан приходилось слышать, что сильный страх парализует тело, - теперь она в этом убедилась. Ее мозг мгновенно осознал происходящее, и она, вновь обретя способность двигаться, попятилась назад в темноте с одной только мыслью - бежать. И сразу же услышала треск.

 - Мистер Чатрукьян, - буквально прорычал он, - дискуссия закончена. Вы должны немедленно покинуть шифровалку. Немедленно. Это приказ.

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Беккер еще больше усилил акцент, но так, чтобы собеседница могла понять, что ему нужно, и говорил слегка сбивчиво, подчеркивая свою крайнюю озабоченность.

Это ловушка. Энсей Танкадо всучил вам Северную Дакоту, так как он знал, что вы начнете искать. Что бы ни содержалось в его посланиях, он хотел, чтобы вы их нашли, - это ложный след. - У тебя хорошее чутье, - парировал Стратмор, - но есть кое-что. Я ничего не нашел на Северную Дакоту, поэтому изменил направление поиска.

Внезапный прилив энергии позволил ей освободиться из объятий коммандера. Шум ТРАНСТЕКСТА стал оглушающим. Огонь приближался к вершине. ТРАНСТЕКСТ стонал, его корпус готов был вот-вот рухнуть.

 - Никакая это не паранойя. Этот чертов компьютер бьется над чем-то уже восемнадцать часов. Конечно же, все дело в вирусе. Чатрукьян это чувствовал.

Сьюзан лишилась дара речи. Перед камерой появился агент Смит.

Он отступил от двери и отошел чуть в сторону, пропуская Чатрукьяна в святая святых Третьего узла. Тот в нерешительности застыл в дверях, как хорошо обученная служебная собака, знающая, что ей запрещено переступать порог. По изумлению на лице Чатрукьяна было видно, что он никогда прежде не бывал в этой комнате. Какова бы ни была причина его волнения, когда он колотил в стеклянную стену Третьего узла, она моментально улетучилась. Он разглядывал роскошную внутреннюю отделку, выстроившиеся в ряд компьютеры, диваны, книжные полки, залитые мягким светом.

Бросив быстрый взгляд на кабинет Стратмора, он убедился, что шторы по-прежнему задернуты. Сьюзан Флетчер минуту назад прошествовала в туалет, поэтому она ему тоже не помеха. Единственной проблемой оставался Хейл. Чатрукьян посмотрел на комнату Третьего узла - не следит ли за ним криптограф.

На его лекциях по этимологии яблоку негде было упасть, и он всегда надолго задерживался в аудитории, отвечая на нескончаемые вопросы. Он говорил авторитетно и увлеченно, не обращая внимания на восторженные взгляды студенток. Беккер был смуглым моложавым мужчиной тридцати пяти лет, крепкого сложения, с проницательным взглядом зеленых глаз и потрясающим чувством юмором. Волевой подбородок и правильные черты его лица казались Сьюзан высеченными из мрамора. При росте более ста восьмидесяти сантиметров он передвигался по корту куда быстрее университетских коллег.


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