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introduction to sociology quiz 2 answers
Since ancient times, people have been fascinated by the relationship between individuals and the societies to which they belong. Many topics studied in modern sociology were also studied by ancient philosophers in their desire to describe an ideal society, including theories of social conflict, economics, social cohesion, and power Hannoum In the thirteenth century, Ma Tuan-Lin, a Chinese historian, first recognized social dynamics as an underlying component of historical development in his seminal encyclopedia, General Study of Literary Remains.
In the eighteenth century, Age of Enlightenment philosophers developed general principles that could be used to explain social life. Thinkers such as John Locke, Voltaire, Immanuel Kant, and Thomas Hobbes responded to what they saw as social ills by writing on topics that they hoped would lead to social reform.
Her works were long ignored by the male academic structure, but since the s, Wollstonecraft has been widely considered the first feminist thinker of consequence. The early nineteenth century saw great changes with the Industrial Revolution, increased mobility, and new kinds of employment. It was also a time of great social and political upheaval with the rise of empires that exposed many people—for the first time—to societies and cultures other than their own.
Millions of people moved into cities and many people turned away from their traditional religious beliefs. Auguste Comte is considered by many to be the father of sociology.
Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. In , the term was reinvented by Auguste Comte — Comte originally studied to be an engineer, but later became a pupil of social philosopher Claude Henri de Rouvroy Comte de Saint-Simon — They both thought that social scientists could study society using the same scientific methods utilized in natural sciences.
Comte also believed in the potential of social scientists to work toward the betterment of society. He held that once scholars identified the laws that governed society, sociologists could address problems such as poor education and poverty Abercrombie et al.
Comte named the scientific study of social patterns positivism. While the field and its terminology have grown, sociologists still believe in the positive impact of their work. Harriet Martineau was a writer who addressed a wide range of social science issues. Her writing career began in with a series of stories titled Illustrations of Political Economy , in which she tried to educate ordinary people about the principles of economics Johnson She is also credited with the first systematic methodological international comparisons of social institutions in two of her most famous sociological works: Society in America and Retrospect of Western Travel Martineau found the workings of capitalism at odds with the professed moral principles of people in the United States; she pointed out the faults with the free enterprise system in which workers were exploited and impoverished while business owners became wealthy.
Much like Mary Wollstonecraft, Martineau was often discounted in her own time by the male domination of academic sociology. Karl Marx was one of the founders of sociology.
His ideas about social conflict are still relevant today. Karl Marx — was a German philosopher and economist. In he and Friedrich Engels — coauthored the Communist Manifesto. This book is one of the most influential political manuscripts in history. He believed that societies grew and changed as a result of the struggles of different social classes over the means of production.
At the time he was developing his theories, the Industrial Revolution and the rise of capitalism led to great disparities in wealth between the owners of the factories and workers. Capitalism, an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of goods and the means to produce them, grew in many nations.
Marx predicted that inequalities of capitalism would become so extreme that workers would eventually revolt. This would lead to the collapse of capitalism, which would be replaced by communism. Communism is an economic system under which there is no private or corporate ownership: everything is owned communally and distributed as needed. Marx believed that communism was a more equitable system than capitalism.
Instead, he favored a form of government that allowed market forces to control capitalism. Georg Simmel was a German art critic who wrote widely on social and political issues as well. Simmel took an anti-positivism stance and addressed topics such as social conflict, the function of money, individual identity in city life, and the European fear of outsiders Stapley Much of his work focused on the micro-level theories, and it analyzed the dynamics of two-person and three-person groups.
His work also emphasized individual culture as the creative capacities of individuals. Durkheim helped establish sociology as a formal academic discipline by establishing the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux in and by publishing his Rules of the Sociological Method in In another important work, Division of Labour in Society , Durkheim laid out his theory on how societies transformed from a primitive state into a capitalist, industrial society.
According to Durkheim, people rise to their proper levels in society based on merit. In , Durkheim attempted to demonstrate the effectiveness of his rules of social research when he published a work titled Suicide. Durkheim examined suicide statistics in different police districts to research differences between Catholic and Protestant communities.
He attributed the differences to socioreligious forces rather than to individual or psychological causes. George Herbert Mead was a philosopher and sociologist whose work focused on the ways in which the mind and the self were developed as a result of social processes Cronk n.
He argued that how an individual comes to view himself or herself is based to a very large extent on interactions with others. Weber wrote on many topics related to sociology including political change in Russia and social forces that affect factory workers. The theory that Weber sets forth in this book is still controversial.
Some believe that Weber argued that the beliefs of many Protestants, especially Calvinists, led to the creation of capitalism. Others interpret it as simply claiming that the ideologies of capitalism and Protestantism are complementary. Weber believed that it was difficult, if not impossible, to use standard scientific methods to accurately predict the behavior of groups as people hoped to do. They argued that the influence of culture on human behavior had to be taken into account.
This even applied to the researchers themselves, who, they believed, should be aware of how their own cultural biases could influence their research. To deal with this problem, Weber and Dilthey introduced the concept of verstehen , a German word that means to understand in a deep way.
This approach led to some research methods whose aim was not to generalize or predict traditional in science , but to systematically gain an in-depth understanding of social worlds.
The different approaches to research based on positivism or antipositivism are often considered the foundation for the differences found today between quantitative sociology and qualitative sociology.
Quantitative sociology uses statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants. Researchers analyze data using statistical techniques to see if they can uncover patterns of human behavior. Qualitative sociology seeks to understand human behavior by learning about it through in-depth interviews, focus groups, and analysis of content sources like books, magazines, journals, and popular media.
In the State of the Union Address, President Obama called on Congress to raise the national minimum wage, and he signed an executive order putting this into effect for individuals working on new federal service contracts. Congress did not pass legislation to change the national minimum wage more broadly. The result has become a national controversy, with various economists taking different sides on the issue, and public protests being staged by several groups of minimum-wage workers. Opponents of raising the minimum wage argue that some workers would get larger paychecks while others would lose their jobs, and companies would be less likely to hire new workers because of the increased cost of paying them Bernstein ; cited in CNN.
Proponents of raising the minimum wage contend that some job loss would be greatly offset by the positive effects on the economy of low-wage workers having more income Hassett ; cited in CNN. Sociologists may consider the minimum wage issue from differing perspectives as well.
How much of an impact would a minimum wage raise have for a single mother? Some might study the economic effects, such as her ability to pay bills and keep food on the table. Others might look at how reduced economic stress could improve family relationships. Some sociologists might research the impact on the status of small business owners. These could all be examples of public sociology, a branch of sociology that strives to bring sociological dialogue to public forums.
The goals of public sociology are to increase understanding of the social factors that underlie social problems and assist in finding solutions. According to Michael Burawoy , the challenge of public sociology is to engage multiple publics in multiple ways. Sociology was developed as a way to study and try to understand the changes to society brought on by the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Those perspectives continue to be represented within sociology today.
Many sociologists helped shape the discipline. The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. London: Penguin. Buroway, Michael. Cronk, George. The Rules of Sociological Method , edited by J. Mueller, E. George and E. Translated by S. New York: Free Press. Paris: Champion. Hannoum, Abdelmajid. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University. Hill, Michael. New York: Greenwood Press. Johnson, Bethany. Poggi, Gianfranco.
Ritzer, George, and Goodman, Douglas. Sociological Theory, 6th Edition. Stapley, Pierre. Congress Joint Economic Committee. Skip to main content. An Introduction to Sociology.
introduction to sociology mcqs with answers
Since ancient times, people have been fascinated by the relationship between individuals and the societies to which they belong. Many topics studied in modern sociology were also studied by ancient philosophers in their desire to describe an ideal society, including theories of social conflict, economics, social cohesion, and power Hannoum In the thirteenth century, Ma Tuan-Lin, a Chinese historian, first recognized social dynamics as an underlying component of historical development in his seminal encyclopedia, General Study of Literary Remains. In the eighteenth century, Age of Enlightenment philosophers developed general principles that could be used to explain social life. Thinkers such as John Locke, Voltaire, Immanuel Kant, and Thomas Hobbes responded to what they saw as social ills by writing on topics that they hoped would lead to social reform. Her works were long ignored by the male academic structure, but since the s, Wollstonecraft has been widely considered the first feminist thinker of consequence. The early nineteenth century saw great changes with the Industrial Revolution, increased mobility, and new kinds of employment.
100 + Sociology Objective Type Questions and Answers
Take the following quiz on sociology to see how much you truly know about social issues going into your new subject! The following Sociology quizzes are from the topics like, why sociability is necessary to man, manifestations of sociability of man, culture, society, social interaction, social control, socio-cultural change, social institutions, sociological theory, sociological research and related theory. March 14, by admin 1 Etnocentricism means: a Evaluating other cultures with the Yardstick of your own values. Introduction to Sociology - Sociology Central. These Sociology Questions are multiple choice questions MCQ that ask you to select only one answer choice from a list of four choices.
Assimilation means— Related products. Individuals who are legally related through marriage. Reviews There are no reviews yet. The Tension Today: Basic, Applied, and Public Sociology One of my main goals in sociology is to make sociological concepts and research findings. Sociology is one of the optional subjects students choose at FA level.
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Welcome to your introductory quiz to the wonderful study of sociology — wherein we analyze the developments, structure, and general functioning processes of human society. Take the following quiz on sociology to see how much you truly know about social issues going into your new subject! Search Speak now. Quiz: Introduction To Sociology! Questions All questions 5 questions 6 questions 7 questions 8 questions 9 questions 10 questions. Feedback During the Quiz End of Quiz.
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In the Industrialised western societies, the chief aim of marriage is not only procreation but. Risley have given this statement put in question No. The importance of the social division of labour as a criterion of social development has been insisted by.